|London||05 Aug 2021||12,965,000||The block’s base fee (EIP-3198 and EIP-1559) can be accessed via the global block.basefee or basefee() in inline assembly.|
|Berlin||14 Apr 2021||12,244,000||Gas costs for SLOAD, *CALL, BALANCE, EXT* and SELFDESTRUCT increased. The compiler assumes cold gas costs for such operations. This is relevant for gas estimation and the optimizer.||https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-2070
|Istanbul||08 Dec 2019||9,069,000||Opcodes chainid and selfbalance are available in assembly.||https://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-1679|
|Constantinople / Petersburg||28 Feb 2019||7,280,000||Opcodes create2, extcodehash, shl, shr and sar are available in assembly. Bitwise shifting operators use shifting opcodes (shl,shr,sar), requiring less gas.
|Byzantium||16 Oct 2017||4,370,000||Opcodes returndatacopy, returndatasize and staticcall available in assembly. staticcall opcode used when calling non-library view or pure functions, which prevents the functions from modifying state at the EVM level, this even applies to invalid type conversions. Ability to access dynamic data returned from function calls. revert opcode introduced, revert() will not waste gas.||http://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-609|
|Spurious Dragon||22 Nov 2016||2,675,000||Gas cost for the exp opcode increased, impacts gas estimation and optimization.||http://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-607|
|Tangerine Whistle||18 Oct 2016||2,463,000||Gas cost to access other accounts increased, impacts gas estimation and optimization. All gas sent by default for external calls, previously a certain amount had to be retained.||http://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-608|
|Homestead||14 Mar 2016||1,150,000||Oldest version||http://eips.ethereum.org/EIPS/eip-606|